Project Report / Essay - Ecosystem
Ecosystem : It is an open system and depends upon solar energy from outside as its Energy
source. An ecosystem can be temporary or permanent natural; Or artificial i.e.
Man made all the ecosystems taken together in a given Geographical area having
the same type of climate is called biome where As, all the biomes all the world
taken together form and eatery and self Sustaining biotical system is called
Structure of Ecosystem: -
The entire ecosystem is made upon two main components biotic, biotic.
A) A biotic components: - can be further divided into flowing their parts
* Climatic factors: - these are two types i.e. Delphic, such as type graph
* Inorganic substances: - These are various inorganic substances Like,
carbon, nitrogen, sulphur, and carbon dioxide. Organic substances age carbon
dioxide, proteins and lipids.
The biotic components of an ecosystem are a community of organisms, which is
made up of many different inter-dependent population. The biotic community of an
ecosystem includes three types of organisms- producers, consumers and
(a) Producers: Producers are the chlorophyll bearing organisms, Which can
prepare their own food from simple inorganic Substances like carbon dioxide and
water, in the presence Of sunlight.
(b) Consumer: they include heterotrophic organism, which depend on other
organism or particular organic matter produced by producers. For example, grass
also called primary consumers and break down the complex of dead protoplasm,
absorb some of the decomposition products and release omprgamoc nutrients.
Producers use these inorganic substances along- with other organic substances as
Major ecosystem: -
Natural ecological groupings of plants and animals Expend over large areas
each of these major terrestrial ecosystem Distinctive terrestrial areas with
their group of climax plants and Associated animals are recognized as biomes. A
become is the Largest terrestrial community rainfall, temperature range nature
of Soil, barriers latitude and attitude determine the nature and extend of
bicomessimbirly there are distinct major ecosystem or life supporting zones are
called biomes by in marine and fresh water environments.
Types of Ecosystem: -
1) Aquatic Ecosystem : There are many kinds of aquatic ecosystems that differ
witty with Regard to almost all biotic factors. The communities living there
obviously vary. The aquatic ecosystem range from ocean to small temporary
paddies, have conditions of salinity, depth and fluctuations of temperature even
the so called marine and fresh water environment have many ecosystems with
overlapping boundaries which cannot by clearly distinguished.
2. Marine Ecosystem : The marine environments is characterized by its high
concentration in The open sea is about 3.5 – the most dominations are sodium and
Chloride followed by sculpture, magnesium and calcium. The salinity of the
surface water and at various depths and latitudes varies single Environment.
It’s subdivided into distinct ecosystems both in biotic and biotic consumption.
The effects of geographical location and Rainfall are less mar keel on the cone
then on the terrestrial biomes.
Function of Ecosystems
(a) Energy flow. The plants after trapping the solar energy, convert it into
chemical energy. About 1 percent of total solar energy plants utilize reaching
the earth during photosynthesis. The herbivores utilize 10 percent of the total
energy fixed by the plants. The herbivores are energy received by herbivores.
The flow of energy is always unidirectional.
The following posing about the transfer of energy are not noteworthy:
1) Energy is neither created nor destroyed, but only converted from one form
2) There is a continues transfer of energy from one tropic level the Next in
the food chain. The energy available at each successive level is 10 percent of
the pervious tropic level.
(b) Biogeochemical Cycles: -
The term “biogeochemical” tells us that biological, biological and chemical
factors are involved. The cycles flow of nutrients between non–living
environment and living organisms is known as Biogeochemical cycles there are
four very important biogeochemical Cycles in nature.
These are carbon cycle, nitrogen cycle oxygen and water cycle.
The decomposers have an important role in the cycling of material In the
biosphere. They act on the dead bodies of plants and animals And covert the
complex organic compounds present in them into Into original nutrient elements,
which go back into the nutrient pool. So, without decomposer, biogeochemical
cycle by completed.
1) Carbon cycle: - carbon is after considered as the basis of life.
Carbon is most essential constituent of all major organic compounds of the
protoplasm namely, the carbohydrates, proteins, fats and nuclides acids.
There are three main sources of carbon in the non – living words
1) The carbon dioxide of the air and that, which did, dissolved in water
2) The rocs in the earth gust can taint carbonates.
3) The fossil flues like coal and petroleum.
4) Carbon dioxide is the major source of for the living the carbon coal
graphite. Petroleum, the insoluble carbonates and the like Are note available to
the organisms bungs they are burnt or chemically charged. Most of carbon dioxide
enters the living world Thought photosynthesis. The amount of carbon fixed by”
is nearly 7x1013 per kg per year. The organic compounds synthesized in
photosynthesis are passed from plants to the herbivorous and carnivorous animals
sentiments suggest that one-hectare of a healthy freest will produce about to
tones of carbon dioxide annually. During respiration plants and animals reties
carbon back to the surroundings medium as carbon dioxide the dead bodies of
plants and animals as wall as the body wastes that accumulates carbon organism
to relapse carbon dioxide cabin also goes back for recycling during the burring
of wood and fossil fools and by the carbonate roes and through conic activity.
2) Nitrogen cycle: - Nitrogen is and essential constituted of proteins and
nuclear acids that Forms of the essential structural and functional components
of a living Organism. Air is nitrogen yet elemental nitrogen cannot be used by
Man, animals or higher plants. It has to be fixed’ , that is combined With other
emends such hydrogen, carbon or oxygen before it can be Utilized some bacteria,
living in the soil and water or in association With some plant roots, and some
along have the ability to use gaseous Nitrogen there genre of bacteria normally
rhyizobium azotobactor etc As well as cyan bacteria such as anabaena abusing.
Plants uses nitrites The can also use ammonium to elaborate proteins.
Electrochemical and Photochemical fixation of nitrogen is only 35 mg. per m2 per
year as Gamiest biological fixation which account fort 140 700 mg per The total
amount of nitrogen fixed by nitrogen fixing microorganisms is about 175 million
tones about 70% of our total supply the remaining amount Comes from chemical
fertilizer factories. A part of the plant protein is consumed by animal and
converted into Animal’s proteins while the rest is decomposed after the death
and decay Of the plant body reason its nitrogen to the surrounding. In the
animals Abode the proteins is eventually proven down into nitrogen wastes like
Area uric aided and ammonia, and excreted.